Nahj al-Balagha-Imam Ali from the Angle of present day Christian Figures

The Greatness of Nahj al-Balagha and the phrases of Imam Ali from the Angle of present day Christian Figures

Key phrases: Appraisal, Imam Ali, Nahj al-Balagha, Christian figures.
Abstract.  After  the  words  of  the  Holy  Quran  and  Prophet  Muhammad’s  subculture,  the  phrases  ofImam Ali  have  thei rpersonal  right bestowed  upon mankind the finest and the maximum  treasured  social,

Political,  and  spiritual information.  Ever  on the grounds that  a  millennium  while  Sharif  ar-Razi  compiled  Nahj  al-
Balagha using his unique and meticulous choice  of  Imam Ali’s speeches, letters, aphorisms,  thisInvaluable  ebook  has  deeply  inspired  many  figuresluminaries  among  each  Shia  and  SunnMuslims  and  nonMuslims,  all  of  whom  have  embraced  and  appraised  it.  In  this  article,  the

Researchers look  into  the  remarks  of  twenty  one  non-Muslim  figures  on  the  well worth  and  deserves  of Nahj al-Balagha.  Maximum  of  those Christian  figures are  moderndayArab  poets  and  thinkers:  such
People  as  Khalil  Farahat,  Rocks  Bin  Zayed  Al  Uzaizi,  Joseph  Hashim,  and  Nasri  Salhab  to Name  simply  a  few;  however,  a few  orientalists  and  western  thinkers  are  really worth  bringing up  such  as
Nursisian and Henry Corbin.Creation.

The  personality  of  Imam  Ali  had  long  orientated  the  studies,  writg,  analysis,  and  remarks  of Various agencies of  pupils  and thinkers. In the meantime,  everybody in  percentage  to their  medical  and Specialty have paid  attention  to  components  of  the  non-public  traits  and  traits of  this remarkable  Imam.

Except Muslims, specially Shiites, different faiths and religions have no longer been deprived of this hidden Treasure,  and  absolutely everyone  has  attempted  to  carry  out  gemstones  from  the  depths  of  this  boundless  sea  of
Information  and  power,  in  order  to  advantage  themselves  and  others  from  such  divine  benefits.
In step with Hafezian Baboli:
Nahj al-Balagha is  an  encyclopedia of  Islamic tradition,  and  after the  words  of the  holy Quran and  Prophet  Muhammad’s  culture,  it  is taken into consideration  the  widest  recognized  and
Authorised  Islamic  resource  of  such  specific  religious  price,  originating  from  divine
Essence  as  learnt  via  Imam  Ali,  and  as  such  it  is  a  particular  rosary  from  which  divine
Revelation’s  fragrance  and  the  candy  breeze  of  Prophet  Muhammad’s  speeches  can  be

Intuited  and  perceived.  This  superb  book  consists of  exalted  philosophies,  luminous
Sermons, codes of divine  behavior,  a  cultural-device, a  grand  plan  for simply authorities,
And best-yet realistic-suggestions for a historic and mystical practice [1, p. 11]. 
  Furthermore, the past due Imam Khomeini has properly stated that:
Guy  shall  be  honored  to  have  Nahj  al-Balagha  after  the  holy  Quran  as  the  maximum
Vital  material  and  non secular  existence  manual  and  beacon,  such  a  first-rate  script  securing
Human  deliverance  and  emancipation,  endowed  with  such  religious  teachings  and
Authorities  guiding  principles  comprising  the  finest  method  to  human  salvation,  all
Which truly comes from an immaculate Imam.” [2, p. 7]
  one of the high-quality strategies to achieve acquaintance with the special features and characteristics
Of this noble ebook is contemplation within the resonating comments of medical and literary grandees and
Dignitaries in particular while those luminaries belong to different religions and cultures:
It is better to recognise about the mysteries of the sweetheart from the phrases’ of others. (Rumi)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences Submitted: 2016-01-eleven
ISSN: 2300-2697, Vol. Sixty nine, pp five-14 Revised: 2016-03-16
Doi:10.18052/www.Scipress.Com/ILSHS.Sixty nine.5 typical: 2016-03-30
© 2

  inside the following, we  will have a look at the  judgments  and viewpoints  of  a few non-Muslim  thinkers
And scholars from each Arab-Christian thinkers and students to orientalists on Nahj al-Balagha and
Imam Ali’s mind.
The helping Figures.
  Khalil  Farahat.  Khalil  Farahat  is  a  Lebanese  pupil,  poet,  and  creator.  His  works  consist of
From the Deeps, New research in Literature, and African Odes. [3, p. 331]. Farahat has composed a
Stunning epic on Imam Ali referred to as In Ali’s Altar testifying to the fact that Ali is a pioneer and leader
In  numerous  sciences.  Right here, he  states  that  scholars  and  thinkers  are  stimulated  by using Imam  Ali  as  a  rich
Sources to their knowledge. Farahat has likened these students to little birds who quench their thirst
On the fountain and spring of Imam Ali’s knowledge and  awareness:  “Their knowledge is predicated on  your
Spring  of  know-how,  /  No  hen’s  beak  can  dry  out  this  everlasting-water”  [4,  p.  78].  Farahat  has  additionally
Introduced  Imam  Ali’s  words  as  a  reducing  blade  which  by no means  is going  blunt  simply  like  his  sharp  and
Reducing sword, Zolfeghar with the aid of pronouncing: “Your phrases are like the sword whose blade in no way goes blunt, /
They  are  as  sharp  and  cutting  as  the  effective  Zolfeghar”  [4,  p.  100].  Farahat  thinks  of  Nahj  al-
Balagha and the Holy Quran as “two brothers who shall never part, in such correlation that makes
The  Holy  Quran  the  source  of  all  eloquence  in  his  poetic  expression”  [4,  p.  107].  Thus,  though  a
Christian, with none prejudice, Farahat apparently publicizes that Nahj al-Balagha includes all of the
Challenge be counted and education of the Bible: “In Nahj al-Balagha you may find the entire Bible, / it's far
One of these top notch spring of divine suggestion.” [4, p. 108]
  Hanna  al-Fakhoury.  Hanna  al-Fakhoury  become  a  Lebanese  Melkite  priest,  truth seeker  and
Linguist.  In  his  history  of  Arabic  Literature,  he  writes  on  Nahj  al-Balagha  announcing,  “In  Nahj  al-
Balagha  Imam  Ali’s  genius  is  manifested:  genius  based  on  a  profound  information  rooted  in
Comprehensive knowledge;  a  genius  from  which  the unique  and exact  in  nothing  is  hidden;
Such a genius that delves into depths  and  gives pure, solid, and lucid perspectives,”  and  on  the phrases
And  sermons  of  Imam  Ali,  al-Fakhoury says,  “these  words  are  the  maximum  trustworthy  photograph of  Imam
Ali’s spirit.  Those perfumed  words contain  the divine  distinctive feature that  existed  in his  coronary heart. Such  distinctive feature
That originates  from religion  in God,  marvel at  divine  perfection  in  introduction,  and an  avoidance from
Unsteady joys.” [5, p. 325]
  Rocks Bin Zayed Al Uzaizi. Rocks Bin Zayed Al Uzaizi become an writer and literary man from
Jordan.  He  has  authored  valuable  works.  In  1996,  he  was  installed  as  the  head  of  Jordanian
Writers  affiliation,  and  from  1986  onward,  he  become  the  representative  of  the  international
Association  of  Human  Rights  in  Jordan.  Al  Uzaizi  has  written  precious  books  approximately  the  life-style
And personality of Imam Ali, particularly, Imam Ali: The Lion and Saint of Islam. This book has been
Translated to Persian, too. He has committed a chapter to  the words and sayings of  Imam Ali,  and  he
Has added a spread  of  them and called  them,  Immortal-thoughts. Al  Uzaizi  remarks on  Imam’s
Phrases saying  that  truly  any  educated  man or woman,  creator, student,  and  Arabic  orator  is  indebted  to
Imam  Ali.  If  every  person  in  the  international  owes  to  the  Quran  for  its  function  in  the  formation  of  their
Rationality  and  thought,  without  doubt,  each  knowledgeable  Arab  person  owes  Nahj  al-Balagha  their
Firmness  of  the  pen  and  writing.  He  says  about  Imam  Ali’s  scholarly  concepts  and  ideas  on
Authorities:  “Whoever  desires  to  apprehend  Arab  societies  and  Arab  rationality  must  truly
Examine Nahj  al-Balagha, and whoever wants to understand the right way to rule in Arab lands, wishes
Nahj al-Balagha.” [6, p. 209]
  Abdul-Masih  Antioch.  Abdul-Masih  Antioch  is  a  Christian  poet  and  journalist,  who  became
Born in Aleppo and was knowledgeable there. Later he joined Abdul Rahman Kawakebi’s faculty. In the beginning,
He posted  Alshuzur  mag  in  Aleppo and  then  ‘Umran  mag in  Egypt [7,  p.  766;  8,  p.
297-298]. Antioch’s works encompass The Epic of Ali or The Blessed Alavid Qasida, custom constructed on
The  Exploits  of  Noble  guys,  Sultan  Husain’s  trip  in  Riyadh  Bahrain,  The  Oriental  or  japanese
Movement, and charter. [9, p. 5-6; Sheikhu; 10, p. 419; 11, p. 312]
  Antioch has  composed  a  outstanding poem on Imam Ali and has depicted special occasions  in  Imam
Ali’s life. The poem is set the stated electricity of his expression. In Antioch view, Imam Ali is
6 extent 69
An eloquent Imam and instructor, the best character who has spoken and written in Arabic: “It seems
As if each Arabic oratory and rhetoric have been created for him, / as though he famous eloquence from
Mysterious nonbeing,  /  He  dominates  all  eloquence  known  to  man  and narrated  earlier than him,  /  No
Birthday celebration  is  left  for  Father  Ben  Sa‘ida,  /  That  awesome  eloquent  orator  who  many  sermons  has
Delivered” [9,  p.  701].  Then,  Antioch maintains  by means of announcing: “Imam Ali’s  sermons  fascinate  reason
And serve it with the sort of divine wine whose butler is pure of all sin: these sermons on every occasion examine,
Fascinate motive, / A  Halal  attraction that fills  the reader’s soul, /  This Halal miracle  is  that rhythmic
Speech and  eloquence,  /  That  is  ample mission  to  the  mind  of  human beings,  /  A  pure, divine  wine
Whose cupbearer is pure of all sin, / those sermons are a pearl necklace, / Strung to enhance and fulfil
Divine law, / hold close that regulation and the guiding pearls decorating it” [9, p. 701]. Antioch is so impressed
With  Ali’s  phrase  that  he  says,  “were  it  not  for  the  worry  of  God  and  piety,  I  might  say  that  those
Phrases  are  verses  of  the  Holy  Quran,  in  which  beliefs  of  divine  leadership  and  guidance  are
Reflected” [9, p. 740]. Furthermore, Antioch has, on the stop of his work, versified a  choice of brief
Understanding as observed in Nahj al-Balagha. 
  Paul  Salameh.  Paul  Salameh,  a  Christian  poet,  student,  journalist  of  Lebanon,  was  an
Completed scholar, succesful creator, awesome poet, and famous  lecturer.  At some point of  his  life, he attracted
The attention of modern poets, pupils, and spiritual and cultural-figures. His works include
Imam Ali Imam and Hussain, 1946; Palestine and Sisters, 1947; Prince Bashir, .1947; Ghadir, 1948;
Contemporary Eve,  1949;  Injured  Memoirs,  1950; struggle  in  existence,  1952;  life  story,  1961;  Bread
And Salt, 1966; With Christ, 1967; From My Balcony, 1967;  beneath the Oak, 1968;  on this Timer,
1970. [12, p. 349-350; 13, p. 18-22]
  one in every of  Salameh’s distinguished  works is  Eid al-Ghadir,  a poem  of 3500  verses, which  famous
The occasions of Islam as referring to Imam Ali. The poem starts via describing the Pre-Islamic length,
Otherwise called the Jahili or the lack of understanding duration, and ends by means of describing the occasions of Karbala
And  the  martyrdom  of  Imam  Hussain.  Salameh, in  the  advent  to  al-Ghadir, speaks  of  Imam
Ali’s eloquence: “It’s enough  for a  lecturer  to  stand on the slope of a mountain,  /  raise his  head  up
After which have verses glide, / For his tongue to get familiar with clean Arabic words, / phrases whose
Policies Ali, the  Father of Hassan,  has  revealed,” for that reason  at  the give up  of  that introduction,  Salameh bows
And explains: “In reality my words and expression bow all the way down to you, / As my poem is a gravel to you,
The Lord of Speech.” [14, p. 12.]
  Salameh distinguishes Imam Ali as, the Lord of Speech and the Originator of Eloquence after
Prophet Muhammad. In his opinion,  Nahj  al-Balagha and  the words of Imam Ali  are  a vast ocean
Wherein souls  commune  and  convene, such comprehensive phrases that now and again grow to be soft and
Gentle, in order that  the  ear and coronary heart  avail  the exceptional  and  the maximum  with the aid of  their  beauty, and  once in a while Imam
Ali’s very own phrases become so robust and overwhelming and exciting as though a volcano has erupted.
“After Prophet Muhammad, also known as Taha, / Ali is the righteous Lord of speech, his brother,
His son in law, / He is like a sea wherein souls and lives  come collectively, Your words in elegances
Advantage  the  ear  and  heart  as  the  echoes  of  appreciation  exist  in  it,  /  He  sends  forceful  words  as
Flames, as from the intensity of a volcano, / And, whilst he speaks with humility, / His gentle words are
Like this type of allure, / That tolerance takes on shame in its gentle, gentle glow.” [14, p. 184-185]
  Paul Salameh in his article, Imam Ali: The Lord of Speech, refers to the words and rhetoric of
Imam Ali. He deliver a few words of Imam Ali and remarks on them and expresses his marvel. In
His article, Salameh says, “I cannot consider any soul professional at eloquence, who has not learned that
Given  eloquence  from  a  supply  other  than  the  Holy  Quran,  the  phrases  of  Prophet  Muhammad  or
Imam Ali’s. Those who've now not been the direct students of Imam Ali, have simply learned from his
Students.” [15, p. 19]
  Henry Corbin. Henry Corbin turned into a logician, theologian and professor of Islamic research
He's  a  German orientalist  that  has  authored valuables paintings on mysticism and Sufism. Amongst his
Paintings  are  history  of  Islamic  Philosophy;  Iranian  philosophy  and  comprehensive  Philosophy;
Iranian Islam [16, p. 89-91]. Professor Henry Corbin writes:
Global Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences Vol. 69 7
The Greatness of Nahj al-Balagha and the words of Imam Ali from the angle of contemporary Christian Figures Seyyed Mahdi Keizoghani1, a, Asghar Moulavi Nafchi2, b * 1,2 Hakim Sabzevari university, Iran, aseyyed1221@yahoo.Com, ba.Moulavi.N@gmail.Com key phrases: Appraisal, Imam Ali, Nahj al-Balagha, Christian figures. Summary.  After  the  phrases  of  the  Holy  Quran  and  Prophet  Muhammad’s  culture,  the  words  of Imam Ali  have in  their very own  right bestowed  upon mankind the greatest and the most  precious  social, political,  and  non secular  awareness.  Ever  because  a  millennium  while  Sharif  ar-Razi  compiled  Nahj  al-Balagha the use of his unique and meticulous selection  of  Imam Ali’s speeches, letters, aphorisms,  this valuable  book  has  deeply  inspired  many  figures  and  luminaries  among  each  Shia  and  Sunni Muslims  and  non-Muslims,  all  of  whom  have  embraced  and  appraised  it.  In  this  article,  the researchers look  into  the  feedback  of  twenty  one  non-Muslim  figures  on  the  really worth  and  merits  of Nahj al-Balagha.  Most  of  these Christian  figures are  present day Arab  poets  and  thinkers:  such people  as  Khalil  Farahat,  Rocks  Bin  Zayed  Al  Uzaizi,  Joseph  Hashim,  and  Nasri  Salhab  to call  simply  a  few;  but,  a few  orientalists  and  western  thinkers  are  worth  mentioning  such  as Nursisian and Henry Corbin. Introduction. The  persona  of  Imam  Ali  had  long  orientated  the  studies,  writing,  evaluation,  and  feedback  of various groups of  students  and thinkers. Meanwhile,  all of us in  percentage  to their  scientific  and uniqueness have paid  attention  to  components  of  the  private  tendencies  and  characteristics of  this exquisite  Imam. Besides Muslims, specifically Shiites, other faiths and religions have no longer been deprived of this hidden treasure,  and  everybody  has  tried  to  carry  out  gemstones  from  the  depths  of  this  boundless  sea  of information  and  electricity,  in  order  to  benefit  themselves  and  others  from  such  divine  benefits. In keeping with Hafezian Baboli: Nahj al-Balagha is  an  encyclopedia of  Islamic subculture,  and  after the  phrases  of the  holy Quran and  Prophet  Muhammad’s  culture,  it  is taken into consideration  the  widest  identified  and approved  Islamic  useful resource  of  such  specific  spiritual  fee,  originating  from  divine essence  as  learnt  with the aid of  Imam  Ali,  and  as  such  it  is  a  particular  rosary  from  which  divine revelation’s  fragrance  and  the  candy  breeze  of  Prophet  Muhammad’s  speeches  can  be intuited  and  perceived.  This  superb  ebook  consists of  exalted  philosophies,  luminous sermons, codes of divine  behavior,  a  cultural-machine, a  grand  plan  for simply government, and ideal-yet practical-suggestions for a historical and mystical exercise [1, p. 11].    Moreover, the late Imam Khomeini has well said that: man  shall  be  venerated  to  have  Nahj  al-Balagha  after  the  holy  Quran  as  the  most important  material  and  religious  lifestyles  manual  and  beacon,  such  a  wonderful  script  securing human  deliverance  and  emancipation,  endowed  with  such  non secular  teachings  and government  guiding  concepts  comprising  the  greatest  way  to  human  salvation,  all which without a doubt comes from an immaculate Imam.” [2, p. 7]   one of the nice techniques to obtain acquaintance with the distinctive capabilities and traits of this noble e book is contemplation within the resonating remarks of scientific and literary grandees and dignitaries specially when these luminaries belong to different religions and cultures: it is better to recognize approximately the mysteries of the sweetheart from the words’ of others. (Rumi) worldwide Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences Submitted: 2016-01-11ISSN: 2300-2697, Vol. 69, pp five-14 Revised: 2016-03-16doi:10.18052/www.Scipress.Com/ILSHS.69.5 regular: 2016-03-30© 2016 SciPress Ltd., Switzerland on-line: 2016-05-16SciPress applies the CC-through four.0 license to works we post: https://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by way of/4.Zero/
  inside the following, we  will study the  judgments  and viewpoints  of  some non-Muslim  thinkers and scholars from each Arab-Christian thinkers and pupils to orientalists on Nahj al-Balagha and Imam Ali’s mind. The helping Figures.   Khalil  Farahat.  Khalil  Farahat  is  a  Lebanese  scholar,  poet,  and  creator.  His  works  encompass From the Deeps, New studies in Literature, and African Odes. [3, p. 331]. Farahat has composed a beautiful epic on Imam Ali referred to as In Ali’s Altar testifying to the truth that Ali is a pioneer and chief in  numerous  sciences.  Here, he  states  that  scholars  and  thinkers  are  stimulated  by means of Imam  Ali  as  a  rich sources to their knowledge. Farahat has likened these scholars to little birds who quench their thirst on the fountain and spring of Imam Ali’s know-how and  wisdom:  “Their knowledge is based on  your spring  of  know-how,  /  No  hen’s  beak  can  dry  out  this  eternal-water”  [4,  p.  78].  Farahat  h
Nahj  al-Balagha,  after  the  Quran  and  Prophet  Muhammad’s  way of life,  has  high importance,  now not  only  as  a  popular  foundation  for  Shia  religious  existence,  but  for  the philosophical  and  intellectual  culture  of  the  Shia.  For  this  purpose,  we  can  keep in mind Nahj al-Balagha as  certainly one of  the  maximum vital  resources  of doctrine to  have come  below close interest  as a  basis of  education by using  Shia students  and thinkers,  especially in  the fourth period. The popularity and effect of this book relates to its doctrinal elements geared toward putting logical relationships in  the  global, establishing a accurate  method  of arriving at conclusions, growing technical terms in Arabic: terms of such top notch splendor, literary and philosophical richness to have entered the Arabic language. All of these are independent from the  Greek texts  which have  been  translated  to  Arabic, and  as such  this ebook  is the supply of  organization  and  a  special  form  of  Shi’a  philosophy.  The  Shia  have  copied from this  e-book all  the content material  which might be  associated with  theology, for  the phrases  of Imam  Ali shape a whole philosophical machine. [17, p. 18]   Amin bin Rashid Nakhla. Amin bin Rashid Nakhla is a Christian lawyer and poet who became born  and  knowledgeable  in  Beirut.  He  graduated  from  Damascus  law  school.  He  became  a  journalist, legal professional,  and  a  man  of  politics  as  properly.  His  works  encompass  The  New  Diwan  and  The  Books  of Ghazals, A Books of Emergency regulation, the country Memoir, under the Bond of Aristotle. [3, p. 408]   Professor  Amin  Nakhla  writes  about  the  sayings  of  Imam  Ali  in  Nahj  al-Balagha:  “If all and sundry wants to remedy their souls of ailment, / They ought to learn Nahj al-Balagha and tread below its light”  [17, p.  18]. Nakhla’s  solution to  someone  who asks  him a  few words  approximately Imam  Ali to collect and post in a book:  you have requested me to pick a hundred speeches of the most eloquent individual amongst Arabs, that  is,  Imam  Ali,  the  Father  of  Imam Hassan,  for  you to  put up  in  a e-book.  I  do  now not have get entry to to such a series, but the simplest source i will introduce is the Holy Bible of Arabic rhetoric  called  Nahj  al-Balagha.  I've  thumbed this  e-book with  outstanding pride, by means of God. I don’t understand a way to pick out from a few of the phrases of Imam Ali simplest one hundred. I do no longer recognise  how  to  detach  one phrase  from some other,  it  is  like  selecting  up  a  valuable ruby grain  sitting  next  to  any other  equally priceless  grain.  I  finally  did  that,  at the same time as  my  hand shook to and fro  with the bright  rubies  stunning my eyes with  such staring divine and heavenly mild. It's far surly improbable, for the astonishment and confusion I needed to endure  for  trying  to  single  out  phrases  from  the  spring  and  fountain  of  rhetoric. Verily,  the  gift  and  bounty  that  Allah  has  bestowed  on  Arabic  literature  and  Arab societies is a ways greater than these a hundred words. [18, p. 39-40]   Mohammed bin  Nael  Hassan  El  Marsafy. Mohammad bin Nael  El  Marsafy became raised in Cairo and knowledgeable in al-Azhar and Darul ‘Ulum. In Freire school he was appointed as trainer and he posted Al-Jadid and Shahrezad magazines. His works include Innovation in Dictation, Pearls in Composition, and Literature in Arabic [8, p. 234]. El Marsafy, a honored professor of Egyptian literature, describes Nahj al-Balagha:  God has appointed Nahj al-Balagha as a clean evidence that Imam Ali is the first-rate sample of the sparkling mild, awareness, guidance, miracle and eloquence of the Holy Quran.  In Nahj  al-Balagha,  Imam  Ali  possesses  such  symptoms  of  complete  awareness,  proof  of  correct policy,  clear  advice,  and  expressive  purpose  that  tremendous  sages  and  overseas  philosophers don’t  include.  Herein,  Imam  Ali  has  traversed  and  absorbed  the  depths  of  technological know-how, politics, and religion, and in some of these geographical regions he's an achieved genius. [19, p. 291]   Ibrahim al-Yaziji. Ibrahim al-Yaziji became an Arab philologist, critic, poet, and journalist. He belonged to the Greek Catholic populace of the Mutasarrifate of Mount Lebanon. Yaziji’s circle of relatives is  at the beginning  from  Homs  and  it  moved  earlier than  he  was  born  in  Beirut.  His  works  consist of  The Necklace:  A  e book  of  Verse;  pleasant  Examples  of  excessive  Oratory,  and  Naj‘at  al-Rai’d  [5,  p.  1058]. Abdul  Masih  Antioch  refers  to  the  phrases  of  al-Yaziji,  as  a  great  author  and  linguist  of  the  20th century, on Nahj al-Balagha:  8 volume 69

I used to be not nicely-versed in Arabic writing, I got here near maturity and pleasure most effective after I had studied the Holy Quran and Nahj al-Balagha, what college students should understand and cherish  as    everlasting  treasures  and  assets  that  in no way  expire.  It’s  not possible  for  a student  to  be  skilled  and  proficient  in  style  without  burning  many  a  middle of the night  oil  to observe those  two  invaluable  resources,  a cozy  and sure  response  to  the  demands  of  any inquirer. [9, p. 700]


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