عورت پرحکم چلانا گناہ ہے Hazrat Imam Ali as Quotes | woman

عورت پر حکم چلانا گناہ ہے   

Urdu and English to language translate 

Hazrat Imam Ali As Quotes | Woman

ایک عورت حضرت امام علی علیہ اسلام  کے پاس اپنے شوہر کی شکایت  لے کر آئی  اور کہا یاعلیؑ میرا شوہر مجھ پر حکم چلاتا ہے  جیسےکے میں اس کی  کنیز یا غلام ہو۔ تو بس یہ کہنا تھا تو امام علیؑ نے اس شخص کو بلایا  اور کہا اے بندہ خدا   یاد رکھنا عورت کی عظمت  کےلیے یہ ایک دلیل ہی کافی ہے۔کہ اللہ نے اپنے محبوب ﷺ کی نسل اس کی بیٹی سے روا کی۔ میں نے اللہ کے رسولﷺ سے سنا کہ انسان ذات کو فراوانی دینے کےلیے اللہ نے عورت کا انتخاب کیا۔یہ عورت یہ ہے انسان کو اپنے پیٹ میں رکھ کے  اتنی تکلیفوں کے بعد بھی جنم دیتے ہیں۔انسان کی نسل پے تا قیامت  عورت کا احسان باقی رہے گا۔تب ہی اللہ نے اپنی  محبت کی مثال  کائنات  کی کسی خلقت سے نہیں دی ۔بلکہ ما ں کے مبتہ سے دی ہے . تا کہ انسان یہ سمجھ سکے  عورت کا مقام اللہ کے نزدیک کیا ہے۔ اور اللہ نے ہر انسان کو آزاد پیدا کیا۔

کسی کو کسی کا غلام نہیں بنایا۔اور جو انسا ن کسی کو غلام سمجھتا ہے۔اپنے سے حقیر سمجھتا ہے۔تو وہ چاہے  کتنی بھی عبادتیں کر لیں   اللہ کے نزدیک حقیر بن جاتا ہے۔میں نے اللہ کے رسول کو دیکھا کہ وہ ہمیشہ عورت کا احترام کیا کرتے تھے چاہیے اس کی ازواج ہو یا اس کی بیٹی اس سے نرم لہجے سے بات کیا  کرتے تھے۔اے شخص جو انسان اپنی عورتوں پے حکم چلاتا ہے ان کو حقیر اور غلام سمجھتا ہے اصل میں وہ خود ہی گناہوں کی زنجیر پہن لیتا ہے۔اور اس کی سزا دنیاں میں  مال و دولت سے تنگدستی بنتی ہے اور آخرت میں سخت ترین عزاب کی پہچان ٹھہرتی ہے۔اور میں نے اللہ کے رسول ﷺ سے سنا  کہ مرد کی مردانگی کی  سب سے عظیم صدا یہ ہے کہ وہ اپنی عورتوں کو برابری کا حق دے۔ ان کی عورتیں ان سے راضی ہو۔ 
English

Ruling on a woman is a sin

A woman came to Islam with her husband's complaint and said, 'Ali Ali my husband rules me as if I am his kinship or slave. Imam Ali then called the man and said, "O man, remembering God is sufficient for one woman's greatness. Allah has revealed the love of his beloved son to his daughter." I heard from the Messenger of Allah that Allah chose a woman to give birth to mankind. This is the woman who gives birth to man in her womb even after all the troubles. Then God did not give the example of His love to the universe, but to the mothers. So that man can understand what position of woman is with Allah. And God created every human being free. No one made anyone a slave. And whoever considers himself a slave, despises himself. He can become abusive to God, no matter how much he worships. I saw the Messenger of Allah that he always respected a woman, be it his wife or his daughter spoke softly to him. A man who commands his women, despises and enslaves them. He realizes that he is actually wearing the chain of sins. And his punishment is that of the wealthy in the daytime, and in the Hereafter he is recognized as one of the hardest wives. S heard the Messenger of Allah is the greatest sound of male potency is that they give equal rights to women. Let their women be pleased with them.

Hazrat Imam Ali as Quotes - Love Relationship Couple - Adultery is a debt


Hazrat Imam Ali as Quotes - Love Relationship Couple 

Adultery is a debt

Love Relationship Couple

زنا ایک قرض ہے


مدینے میں ایک دفعہ یہ خبر پھیل گئ  کہ  ایک شخص زنا کرتا ہے۔ بس امام علی علیہ اسلام  اس شخص کے پاس گئے اور فرمانے لگے۔ اے بندہ خدا بدترٰین عمل میں سے ایک  عمل زنا ہے۔ میں نے اللہ کے رسولﷺ سے سنا کہ زنا ایسا بدترین   قرض ہے ۔ جو انسان زنا کرتا ہے۔ اسی کے گھر میں اسی  کی عورتوں سے زنا ہوتا ہے۔ یاد رکھنا اگر تم اپنی عورتوں کی عزت محفوظ رکھنا چاہتے ہو اس بدترین فعل سے اپنے آپ  کو دور کر دو۔اور ہو کہنے لگا یا علی علیہ اسلام میں معضرت کے ساتھ عرض کروں گا۔ میرے گھر کی عورتیں  میرے گھر کے بہر تک قدم نہیں رکھتی ہیں۔وہ تو پاک دامن ہے۔ اللہ نہ کریے ایسا کیسے ہو گا۔ بات جب یہاں تک پہنچی تو  امام علیہ علیہ اسلام نے فرمایا۔اے بندہ خدا یاد رکھنا  انسان کے عمال انسان کے دماغ  پر اثر  رکھتے  ہے۔ اور جب انسان اپنے گھر میں بیٹھتا ہے   تو اسی کے دماغ کی  گندی سوچ  گھر کے دوسرے انسان کے دماغ پر اثر کرتی ہے۔ یاد رکھنا  جیسی سوچ تم اپنے دماغ میں رکھوں گے ویسی سوچ  آپ کے گھر کے دوسرے افراد  اور آپ کی گھر کی عورتوں  کی دماغ پر ویسی سوچ ابھرے گی۔ اور یوں وہ بھی اسی گناہ کے قریب جاتی جائیں گی۔اے شخص جیسا تم سوچو ں گے ویسا ہی تمارا گھر بنے گا۔  اور یاد رکھنا تم اس دنیاں میں بھی  رسوا ہو جائو گے اور آخرت میں بھی عزاب پائو گے۔ 
English language 
Adultery is a debt

Once in Madina, news spread that a man committed adultery. Just Imam Ali went to this person and said. O servant God one of the worst practices is adultery. I heard from the Messenger of Allah that adultery is such a bad debt. That a man commits adultery. In his house, his wife commits adultery. Remember that if you want to protect the dignity of your women, remove yourself from this evil act. The women in my house do not even step outside my house. Allah cannot do that. When the matter reached here, the Imam said: Remembering God, human actions affect the mind of man. And when a man sits in his house, the dirty thinking of his mind affects the other person's mind at home. Remember to think the same way you think in your mind, the same thinking will develop on the minds of other people in your house and the women of your household. And so they will get closer to the same sin. This person will become your home as you think. And remember, you will be humiliated in these days, and in the Hereafter you will be honored.

Why does not man's sustenance increase? The decree is Moula Ali


Why does not man's sustenance increase? The decree is Moula Ali


Two Language  1 urdu 2 English 
Why does not man's sustenance increase? The decree is Moula Ali

ایک شخص حضرت امام علیؑ علیہ السلم کے حضور پیش ہوا ۔ اور اس کے سامنے اداس ہو کر بیٹھ گیا۔ تو حضرت علی علیہ اسلام نے فرمایا کہ تم یہ سوچ رہے ہو نا کہ میں اتنی محنت کے باوجود کامیاب کیوں نیہں ہوتا۔تو اس نے کہا ہا یا علی علیہ اسلام ۔ میں دن رات محنت کرتا ہوں پھر بھی میرے کام نہیں بنتے۔ تو امام علی علیہ اسلام نے کہا : اس دنیاں میں انسان کو روکاوٹیں اس لیے آتی ہے  کہ وہ اپنے اندر ایک ایسی بدترین عادت رکھتے ہیں۔ جس سے ان کا نصیب خراب ہوتا ہے ان کی خوشحالی ختم ہوتی ہے۔ تو اس نے کہا ایسی کونسی عادت ہے ۔ تو امام علی علیہ السلا م نے مرمایا جب انسان سونے والا ہوتا ہے اور جو وہ سوچتا ہے تو اس کا اثر اسے کے جسم پر باقی رہتا ہے۔ اس کی سوچ پر باقی رہتا ہے ۔

 جب رحمت کے فرشتے آسمان سے زمین پر نازل ہوتے تو وہ ہر گھر کا چکر لگاتے ہیں۔ اور جو رزق اسی دن کا مخلوق کو دینا ہو تا ہے تو ہو دیے ہیں۔ لیکن جو انسان لوگوں کے لیے برا سوچ کر سوتے ہے  اور کسی کی بری باتوں کا یاد کر کر کے سویا ہوتا ہے ۔ تو اس کے وجود میں یہ دیکھ کر واپس چلے جاتے ہیں اور خدا کی دربار میں عرض کرتے ہیں اے یا اللہ یہ بندہ تیری مخلوق کےلیے برا سوتا ہے۔ اور وہ شخص اس رزق 
سے منحرف ہوجاتا ہے۔
ا

اگر تم چاتے وہ کے  کہ تمارے رزق فراوانی ہو تو اس  مخلوق کے لیے اچھا سوچ کر سویا کرو تاکہ تمارے رزق میں برکت ہو 



Hazrat Ali


A man appeared before the Imam. And sat down in front of him sadly. So Hazrat Ali (as) said: You are thinking why I am not successful despite all the hard work. Even though I work hard day and night, I still don't get things done. So Imam Ali (as) said: In these days human beings have to stop because they have such a bad habit inside themselves. Which destroys their fortune and destroys their prosperity. So he said, what kind of habit is this? So Imam Ali (as) was killed when a man is asleep and what he thinks has an effect on his body. The thought of it remains.

 When the angels of mercy descend from heaven to the earth, they surround every house. And the sustenance which the creature is to give to the creature on the same day is done. But the person who sleeps badly for people and sleeps in remembrance of the bad things. So when they see it in their existence they go back and say in the court of God, O Allah, this servant sleeps badly for your creation. And that person deviates from this provision.

How do we remove homophobia from the Islamic tradition

How do we remove homophobia from the Islamic tradition


Gay Muslims are told they have to be patient and wait for death because they have no access to sacred sexuality on this planet.

When we talk about the "essence" of our traditions, we always leave something out of the way: historical reality is too complicated for the essence to be truly pure. But sometimes, the only way we can keep things up is if we ignore certain aspects.
Islamic tradition

When we talk about the "essence" of our traditions, we always leave something out of the way: historical reality is too complicated for the essence to be truly pure. But sometimes, the only way we can keep things up is if we ignore certain aspects.

The text of a job about sexual intercourse in Islamic religion, held by a Muslim chaplain at Brown University, has been online for some time now. The main idea seems to be to persuade young Muslims to abstain from sex. Sex is not only regulated by God, says the priest - specifically mentioning capital punishment for adultery - but also profoundly spiritual, his true power being felt only in marriage. If you're not ready to get married, say the job, you're not ready for sex: you have "no choice but to be patient."

If you've ever been to a camp for young Christians, you've heard about sex and abstinence without the Arabic terms or references to Mohammed. Yet, as the biblical discussion of sex and marriage tends to ignore certain things, whenever I hear Muslims talking about the "sanctity and reverence" that "Islamic tradition" gives to sexuality, a few lights are lit up in my head.


First: SCLAVIA

The Qur'an mentions the rape of slaves as a permitted sexual practice. Prior to objections to slavery in the modern age, Muslim thinkers never questioned the alleged right of a slave master to violate his slaves. They simply debated some legal issues, such as what would happen if two men would buy a woman together and then they would both violate it or if a man could violate a slave belonging to another slave.

The second light: THE MARTIAL VIOLENCE

The marriage concept of Islam is an economic transaction: a man agrees to financially support a woman in return for access exclusively to her sexual and reproductive capacities. Following that logic, martial rape has no place, because the husband bought the vagina. Contemporary studies have compared the very way in which marriage and slavery are discussed in Islam.

In addition, the ministry does not mention polygamy, a practice supported by the Qur'an, and the personal example of the Prophet. The job describes sex as the moment when two souls share the most intimate moments, but does not consider marriages involving more than two souls. In this edited presentation of Islamic sexuality, everything that does not relate to the historical moment - in short, everything unrelated to the modern vision of heterogeneous monogamous marriage - disappears.

It may be unpleasant to consider slaves rape, martial rape and polygamy as part of Islamic sex, but they are always present in our sources. Discussion about sexuality in the Islamic tradition should include mutilation of female genitalia. The practice was accepted by al-Ghazali, one of the most important thinkers in our tradition who believed not only that women's circumcision improves sexual intercourse but also helps a woman maintain her appearance. Besides these issues, a more comprehensive definition of "Islamic tradition" includes sexual practices that are not accepted by the Islamic legal tradition. The indisputable presence of homoerotic themes in Muslim mystic poetry and literature shows that Islamic tradition shares a certain space with the queer tradition. The chaplain can take homosexuality out of Islam if he speaks in certain legal or biblical terms, but claiming that there are no queer Muslims or that they have not contributed to Islamic sexuality makes Islamic tradition out of the reality. The Brown service tells heterosexual Muslims that they have to be patient and wait until marriage but tells gay Muslims that they have to be patient and wait for death because they have no access to sacred sexuality on this planet. In fact, because the job does not say anything about gay Muslims, she says they do not exist. Thinking of it, I realize that this job I read at home was held in front of a crowded room. Maybe not everyone identifies themselves as heterosexuals. The chaplain stood in front of a crowd and pretended that some people were not there.

I do not think Islamic tradition is beaten in stone or that we can truly study Islam only through pre-modern texts. As a living tradition, Islam suffers dramatic mutations. Whatever the anti-historical may be the vision of the ministry on Islam and sexuality, it also reflects what the "Islamic tradition" says for many of the Muslims to whom it was addressed. The truth is that the job has appeared in my Facebook feed just because it resonates with the current definition of many Muslims. Some of the comments I've read describe it as progressive and a step forward.

When I complained about a friend's job, he replied that there is no reason why a chaplain would include slavery in the discussion of Islam and sex when addressing a student-based audience because it is not a relevant topic for They. I've been through this, he told me. Even though the Qur'an, the sun and the thinkers who helped shape Islam, treated concubinage as perfectly acceptable, we must take into account the historical context and leave that discussion in the past.


Personally, I agree with that. But when we talked about homosexuality, he said, "Islam is clear about that." He insisted there was no place in Islam to accept homosexual relations. His statement that there is a clear position of Islam on homosexuality and, more importantly, that we have to respect this position contradicts the idea that we can ignore the acceptance of rape in the Qur'an. If we can not place queer Muslims because the Qur'an is so categorical, what gives us the right to wipe out concubinage? How can we say that we have gone through slavery-or that the true intent of the Qur'an and the Prophet, even when explicitly accepting slavery, was to gradually disintegrate it-but can not we speak of homosexual love as well?

To make statements about what Islamic tradition says, we have to become publishers. We have to emphasize that al-Ghazali has given priority to married women's right to sexual satisfaction, while ignoring that he believed in the multiplication of feminine organs. We may forget that al-Ghazali's brother, a poet, mystic and thoughtful thinker, was a lawyer of the erotic contemplation of boys as a spiritual practice. Both inclusion and exclusion are defined by your own needs. When deciding which parts of tradition are useful, we can look at those important texts and figures only from the perspective of our present. It's never just what tradition tells us, because tradition does not say anything until we have interpeted what it says in terms of our time. And every interpretation is a choice.

Philosophy of Islamic Education: Classical Visions and Perspectives of Fethullah Gülen

Philosophy of Islamic Education: Classical Visions and Perspectives of Fethullah Gülen


Philosophy of Islamic Education: Classical Visions and Perspectives of Fethullah Gülen
Introduction
Philosophy of Islamic Education

Islam is often characterized as "the religion of the Book," the Book in question being no other than the Quran, the revealed central script of Islam. The first word that the angel Gavriil was supposed to say in 610 AD, who initiated the series of divine revelations to the Prophet Muhammad was Iqra '! ("Recite" or "read"). The whole verse (96: 1) gives the command: "Read in the name of your Lord, He who created all things." The act of reading or reciting, in relation to the holy book of Islam and in general, has thus acquired an exceptional sacrosanct quality within Islamic tradition and practice, as well as the accumulation of as much religious knowledge as possible by extension. "Will they be treated the same as those who know and who do not know?" Asks the Qur'an (39: 9). The Qur'an catalogs knowledge as a wonderful gift from God given to His Prophets and their followers over time. (2: 151-52, 4: 113, 5: 110, 12: 22, 28:14, etc.)

Believers have taken the advice of the Prophet as a law: "Seek knowledge even in China," which has sacrificed the journey, often dangerous, to supplement or complete one's education, an act of courage known in Arabic as the righteous expression of the -'ilm ("the quest for knowledge"). The "quest for knowledge" (talib al-'ilm) remains today the expression that denominates the pupil / student, usually using the abbreviated form (talib [masc.] / Taliba [fem.]) For all levels education. Another well-known statement of the Prophet is that "the quest for knowledge springs to all Muslims, men and women," suggesting that it is necessary for every human being, regardless of gender, a minimal amount of knowledge so that everyone knows what its individual duties. "Disciples are the heirs of prophets" is another important hadith invoked as a basic text to emphasize the extraordinary importance of learning and its dissemination in shaping a community life and as a basic, integral part of individual religious growth. Penalized both by the word of God and by the words of His Prophet (the latter being inscribed in what is called in the Arabic hadith, the "discourse"), the search for knowledge (Ar. 'Ilm) is regarded as a religious obligation , along with prayers, mercy, etc. It is common for you to find these sacred texts that glorify the search for knowledge ('ilm) assembled and recorded in many treatises on learning and education, both in the pre-modern and modern times, in order to cause the believer to descend on the road Noble of Knowledge
In this article, I will first provide a small summary of classical Islamic education and its institutions, both formal and informal, and I will also identify the principles and underlying rationale behind it. Then I will discuss some of the key features of Gülen's perspectives on what constitutes an ideal Islamic education. In the last part, I will indicate the strong link between classical visions and Gülen's perspectives, thus establishing a continuity and an innovative commitment of the latter to the classical legacy.

Classical centers of education

The first location of the education centers was the mosque, the place of formal adoration in Islam. During the Prophet Muhammad, his mosque in Medina served both as a private and public adoration, as well as as an informal instruction of believers in religious law and related topics. The Mosque continued to play these multiple roles throughout the first three centuries of Islam (from the 7th century to the 19th century, d.Hr or so on). Ordinarily, religious or legal science instruction was offered by a religious disciple to students who (or rarely) attended each day in the learning circles (Arthur halqa, majlis) either inside or outside the mosque, in his yard. In the nineteenth century, a novelty has emerged: homes (khan) have begun to be built near the "mosques of learning" in Iraq and the eastern provinces of the Islamic world, allowing pupils and teachers in remote areas to live near these training sites. The emergence of the mosque-khan complex during this period is a consequence of intensifying and lengthening the period of study required for the qualification of religious disciples. At that time, the teaching of religion had expanded, and the study of the religious law (Ar. Al-Shari'a) had become more detailed and sophisticated, fact reflected in the establishment of four Sunni schools of law (Ar. Madhahib, Singh Madhhab) 10th century.

In the X and XI centuries BC another important institution has developed, becoming known as the madrasa, translated literally from Arabic meaning "a place of study".

Madrasa is a logical development of the mosque-khan complex, being both a teaching and living institution. Besides the significant contribution to the fabulous systematization of knowledge, the development of this institution has led to a re-establishment of the Muslim identity sunk in the dawn of the collapse of various Shi'i dynasties that have led much of the Islamic world in the 10th and 11th centuries. In the tenth century, a Shi'i dynasty, called Buwayhid (or Buyid), established control of Iraq and Abbaside Iran, preserving the abbessid caliph as the ruler and absolute ruler. Those in the Buwayhid dynasty retained control until the eleventh century, when they were chased away by the Sunni Selguts, a Turk-speaking people from Central Asia. In 969, another Shi'i dynasty in North Africa, whose members were later named Fatimids, gained power in Cairo, Egypt, and led the Sunni population until 1171 when they were defeated by the Turks Seljuk. One of the fatimical intellectual heritage that was preserved was the establishment of the oldest university in the world with an uninterrupted activity, namely, the mosque-madrasa al-Azhar complex in Cairo - in 972 BC, for the propagation of the Fatimid-Shi'i doctrine and for learning. With the fall of the Fatimids, there was a sunny effort to eliminate the Shi'i influence of the last two decades. Madrasa has in many ways become the locus classicus to fuel this campaign of religious and intellectual reclamation. This is reflected dramatically in the transformation of al-Azhar into the most important center of sunrise in the 12th century, a position that it enjoys today.

Perhaps the most prominent name associated with the spread of madras, especially in Iraq, is Nizam al-Mulk (d. 1092), the inferior vizir selgiucid (Wazir means "minister"). His name is associated with the famous Nazamiyya academy in Baghdad, which enjoyed the presence of important scholars such as Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (1111).Since then, madrasa has become the primary vehicle and vehicle for transmitting religious education to the major urban centers of the Islamic world, such as Baghdad, Damascus, Cairo and Jerusalem. It was a higher education institution comparable to a modern college, whose precursor has been, as we will be discussing below.

Other education centers

Apart from mosque, mosque-khan and madras, other institutions have developed over time that have played important roles in the dissemination of learning. One of the most significant institutions of this kind was the library, an institution that began to budge since the 9th century. The largest mosques usually had attached bilobots, containing books on various religious subjects. The other semi-public libraries also had books of logic, philosophy, music, astronomy, geometry, medicine, and alchemy. The first Islamic academy, known as bayt al-hikma, was built by the caliph abbasid al-Ma'mun (813-33), having an attached astronomical library and astronomical observatory. In this academy, many Christian Arab disciples, under their abbasish Muslim patrons, translated many classical Greek works, first into Syrian and then Arabic. The works of Euclid, Galen, Plato, etc. have thus become accessible to the following generations of Arab-speaking disciples, influencing the development of a humanist tradition. Sometimes people like to create libraries in their own homes, such as' Ali b. Yahya (888). The library called khizanat al-hikma (the "Treasure of Wisdom") allowed students to study all branches without paying any fees; the most famous section was astronomy. Other specialized learning institutions were al-qur'an ("the Koran House"), which specialized in the study of the Qur'an and related sciences; but al-hadith (translated "The Prophet's House"), which focused on the study of the Sunnah, the words and customs of the Prophet Muhammad; but al-'ilm ("The House of Reasonable Science") dealing with philosophical and natural sciences and al-tibb ("medicine schools") that were dedicated to medical sciences. There were three more terms - ribat, khanqa and zawiya. These concerned the lodges and prayer houses where traditional science was practiced. The medical instruction was mainly in hospitals (maristan / bimaristan), which served as medicine schools, but also in mosques and madras. Nevertheless, informal and formal private instruction was offered by men and women in their own homes or in the private homes of rich disciple and people. In most of the medieval Islamic world, such practices of private education were more common than formal, collective meditations.2

Organization and curriculum of madras: the parameters of religious education
Religious education was based on the so-called al-'ulum al-naqliyya (the "transmitted sciences"), which are nothing more than the Qur'anic sciences, the hadith-based sciences, and the jurisprudence (fiqh). Along with "transmitted" or religious sciences, al-'ulum al-'aqliyya (rational sciences) included logics, philosophy, mathematics, and natural sciences. Rational sciences were also called "foreign sciences" or "ancestral sciences", thus showing their main Greek origin.

In the pre-abbasid period, madrassas, like pre-masters, were mainly devoted to the religious study based on the research of the transmitted sciences (study of the Koran, hadiths and religious law) supplemented by the auxiliary sciences of grammar and literature. George Makidisi, a pioneer of Islamic education, has demonstrated the influence of madras on the development of the system of European medieval colleges and has provided us with a comprehensive vision of the medieval curriculum and the organization of education.3 As far as traditional or religious sciences are concerned, Students were the following: Quran, Hadiths, Qur'anic sciences that included exegesis, varied reading of the text, and hadith-related sciences that involved studying the biographies of hadith transmitters. After their research, the student was to study two "basic" sciences: the al-usa, which refers to the principles or sources of religion and al-fiqh, the sources, principles and methodology of jurisprudence. The student could also study the madhhad law (school law) in which he was found4, the points of difference (Khilaf) between the same madhhab and other four schools of law and dialectics (Jadal), also called disputes (ar. Munazara) .5 After the dialectic, he followed the study of adab or literature, including poetry, prose and grammar. These subjects were basically the curriculum, which involved a sequential study, as I pointed out here - and as preferred by theoreticians of education. In reality, however, the method and course of study tended towards informality and lack of structuring, and were often dependent on the inclinations of the teachers and, sometimes, of the students. Thus, a typical day of instruction of the famous lawyer Mohammad b. Idris al-Shafi'i (d. 820) involved teaching a course in the Qur'an before any other activity, then discussing a hadith and debates followed by a course at the end morning, classical, grammar, prose and poetry until noon

In his famous Prolegomena, written in the fourteenth century, Ibn Khaldun lists a similar curriculum for religious sciences, paying particular attention to the Qur'an and his sciences, their hadiths and their sciences, including the Hadithology-specific terminology, the fiqh, the law (al-kalam), Sufism (Islamic mysticism, termed al-tasawwuf in Arabic), and science of the interpretation of dreams and visions (ta'bir al-ruya) .7

Madrasa was usually established by a waqf, charitable foundation or organization, a form of institutional organization borrowed by the West from the Islamic world at the end of the eleventh century.8 Waqf maintained the property of a person in safety, o for confiscation of the state by its categorization as public property, but which could be left inheritance to the descendants of the founders. In this way, many men and many women appeared as benefactors of the madras, who were sometimes named after them or their families, both in pious interest and pragmatic reasons. Many of them had a genuine and sincere interest in the development of public education, and women played a prominent role in this special charity activity. For example, a famous madrasa was built in the fourteenth century by Barakat, the mother of Mamluk Sultan al-Ashraf Shaban, who became known as the madras of al-Ashraf Shaban's mother9. Another woman called Alif, a member of the distinguished Bulqini family, also during the nursing period, founded certain establishments to support the reciters of the Qur'an in her grandmother's madras.

Methodology of training and learning


The methods used for teaching were reading and dictation. For legal studies, the Munzara or the debate were the most used. The student had to memorize, first of all, the Quran and as many possible hadiths as possible. The teacher, usually called shaykh, had to repeat the hadith three times so as to determine and allow the students to memorize them. In the case of hadiths, dictation (imla ') was particularly important because the text had to be fixed very well. Problems related to jursiprudenta were also dictated as they represented linguistic and literary issues. In relation to the Hadiths and the Qur'an, learning from the outside (talqin) was the main method of acquiring knowledge. Thus, a retentive memory was obviously highly rewarded. But at the same time, the importance of understanding was highlighted, and students were asked to reflect on what they were learning. The adage "learning is a city, one of whose gates consists of memory and understanding" captures this dual approach to good teaching. The Arab term used for "comprehension" is diraya and is distinct, although bound, by the memory activity and the transmission of certain hadiths, a process known in Arabic under the term riway. Diraya was decisively the high gate of teaching, since it concerned the individual ability to understand the contents of the hadiths, and did not merely refer to passive memorization and their transmission, but went much further until they were used for the interpretation of the law religious. The term homologue for jurisprudence, fiqh, denotes understanding, as well as reflecting the importance attached to active comprehension and involvement in the educational system.

In the study of the law, the scholastic method of the debate (munazara) prevailed, being a pedagogical method that appeared early in the Islamic environment. It is well known that Harun al-Rashid, the abbasid caliph, encouraged the organization of debates at his court. The famous lawyer Malik b. Anas used to challenge his student, 'Uthman b.' Isa b. Kinana (d. 797), to get involved in the labor camp with another well-known lawyer, Abu Yusuf. . Al-Husayn b. Isma'il (942), a hadith disciple and jurist (mufti), the judge of the Iraqi city of Kufa for six years, had regular debating sessions at his home while he served as a judge, sessions attended by many prominent jurists. There are many other examples of debate sessions we can find in the legal literature. These sessions were extremely popular and often attracted broad audiences, ranging from sunset to midnight.12

The method of debate called for the participants to have a) a comprehensive understanding of khilaf, which referred to the legal divergent views of the jurisconsult; b) in-depth knowledge of the jadal or dialect concerned; and gain skills through practice for c) munassara. Law students had to memorize a full list of laws to be debated and prepare answers for any questions. Students obtained their license or certificate (known in Arabic under the title ijaza) according to their skills in the art of debate so they would be allowed to surrender the right or to issue opinions on laws.13

"Rational" or "ancient" sciences


The so-called "rational sciences" (al-'ulum al-'aqliyya) or 'ancient sciences' (al-aulum al-awa'il) were normally composed of seven components: 1) mantiq), which was but the foundation of the others; 2) (al-'ulum al-awa'il), arithmetic, including accounting (hisab); 3) al-handasa, geometry; 4) al-hay'a, astronomy, 5) al-musiki, music, dealing with the theory of tones and their definition by numbers, etc .; 6) al-tabi'yyyat, "natural sciences", which focused on the theory of the resting and moving bodies - humans, plants, minerals and celestial bodies, whose important subdivisions were medicine (al-tibb) and agriculture -falaha); and, finally, 7) al-ilahiyyat metaphysics.14


Prime Minister Sobotka met Iran's Vice President Sálhím

Prime Minister Sobotka met Iran's Vice President Sálhím

On Monday, May 2, 2016, Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka met with Vice President of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Chairman of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Ali Akbar Salih, in Straka's Academy. In particular, they discussed the strengthening of economic relations, cooperation on nuclear safety and the fight against terrorism.



The main topic of the discussion was cooperation in the nuclear and economic fields. Prime Minister Sobotka praised the conclusion that an international agreement on Iran's nuclear program was concluded last year, leading to a gradual easing of anti-Iranian sanctions in the economic and financial spheres. According to the Czech Prime Minister, great potential for cooperation between the Czech Republic and Iran is mainly in the energy sector, water management, transport infrastructure and supplies of public transport. The Czech Republic also supports Iran's efforts to become a member of the World Trade Organization.

A two-day visit by the Vice-President of the Islamic Republic of Iran took place following the conclusion of an agreement on the Iranian Nuclear Program (JCPOA) and the subsequent release of international sanctions against Iran with an emphasis on deepening Czech-Iranian relations.    in addition to Minister of Foreign Affairs Lubomír Zaorálek

Islamic mistresses on the BBC collect fame and strong criticism


The BBC posted a controversial response on Thursday, broadcasting a video parodying the lives of the Islamic State (IS) wives as part of the Revolting comedy series. More than 21 million people have seen the video of the bombers or women's ill-treatment on Facebook, the BBC said on its website on Friday.

Islamic battalion against Lohansuk and Donutik

Islamic battalion against Lohansuk and Donutik

More and more Islamic battalions are involved by the Ukrainian side in the fight against the republics of Luhanska and Donetsk. According to the New York Times, this event mainly concerns the Cheikh Manour and Jochar Doudajev regiments, composed primarily of Chechens who came from Georgia and Uzbekistan, as well as from the Crimean regiments made up of Tatars [1].


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These groups are tied to the Nazi Right sector and receive no salary from the Ukrainian government. The diary did not find any trace of the use of EU member states' forces. (NYT) As Thierry Meyssan revealed about a year ago [2], the CIA has coordinated Nazis and Islamists since World War II. In the inclusion of Ukraine, the CIA organized the so-called Congress against imperialism (understood against Russia) on May 8, 2007 in Ternopoli (Western Ukraine), which was already attended by the Ukrainian Nazis and Islamists of the Caucasus. This convergence resulted in the position of Adviser to the Chief of General Staff and Presidency of the Right Sector, and also received a blessing from Dokou Oumarova (Fifth President of the Caucasus Emirate, then Caucasus Emir)

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Donutik

In December 2013, Tatar Islamists suddenly returned from the Middle East, where they fought against the Arab Syrian Republic. Then they accompanied the color revolution on Majdan [3].

On the other hand, the representatives of the Islamic emirate in Iraq and in the countries of the Culture of Khami have been largely replaced by Chechens, which has led to the spread of Russian in a large part of Daesh, which replaces Arabic.

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